Electives

Union prides itself on offering a comprehensive selection of elective courses that allow students to explore their different interests, learn new 21st century skills, or concentrate on honing already developed skills. UMS offers a comprehensive music, technology, and visual art program as well as various other electives. Electives for 7th and 8th graders are either semester-long or year-long. Students request electives in May of each year for the following year. Questions regarding electives can be directed to the school counselors.

2022-2023 Electives Course Catalog Sixth Grade

UMS sixth-graders have one period each day throughout the year that is set aside for electives. Sixth graders have the option of taking year-long band elective or four quarter-long non-band electives.

Scenario A - Band Elective:

If a student is enrolled in one of the two year-long band classes as a sixth grader, this will be their only elective for the year.

Scenario B - Non-Band Electives:

If a student is NOT enrolled in band, s/he will take four quarter-long electives.

Below are descriptions of the Band classes, as well as the other quarter-long elective courses. Again, if a student is enrolled in band, s/he is not able to take any other electives this year. Not enrolling in these classes in sixth-grade does not preclude you from taking similar courses in seventh or eighth grade. Students will NOT sign up for specific non-band electives. They will be randomly assigned to take four of the quarter electives during their 6th-grade year.

6th Grade Band Options

Slides & Presentations: View UMS Bands in action UMS Music YouTube Channel

Course Title: Band 1 (a.k.a. "Beginning Band")

Term: Year

Prerequisites: Interest in music and learning/playing an instrument

Eligibility: 6th grade

Course Description: This year-long course is designed for those who may or may not read music, but who have never played a band instrument before. Students will learn the techniques involved to properly play a band instrument and perform as a band. Beginning Band, both an elective class and a performing group at UMS, is a commitment and participants must be willing to fulfill the requirements, which include regular practice and participation in most if not all performances. The group performs three concerts during the year.

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Course Title: Intermediate Band 6

Term: Year

Prerequisites: At least one year experience in elementary band or by audition with the Band Director

Eligibility: 6th grade

Course Description: This year-long course is designed for those who want to continue building their instrumental skills. Participants must complete Beginning Band or be accepted by an audition with the director. Intermediate Band, both an elective class and a performing group at UMS, is a commitment and participants must be willing to fulfill the requirements, which include regular practice and participation in most if not all performances. Concert and Intermediate Band students perform as one in the winter, pops, spring, festival, and graduation performances. Sixth grade Intermediate and seventh/eighth grade Concert Bands meet at different class times but perform together. Students in Intermediate Band should be able to read music.

6th Grade Non-Band Options

Course Title: Art 6

Term: Quarter

Prerequisites: None

Eligibility: 6th grade non-band students

Slides & Presentations: Art I Overview

Course Description: Art I 6 is an introductory art class examining many basic principles of art ranging from line, value, texture, contour and color. Students explore these principles through different media such as pencil, charcoal, collage, cut paper, chalk and oil pastel, and paint. This fun, hands-on class is a place to explore your creative ideas, and a great precursor to more art classes offered at UMS.

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Course Title: Project Lead the Way 6: Introduction to Electronics

Term: Quarter

Prerequisites: None

Eligibility: 6th grade non-band students

Slides & Presentations: Project Lead the Way: Introduction to Electronics

Course Description: Introduction to Electronics -- Through hands-on projects, students explore electricity, the behavior and parts of atoms, and sensing devices. They gain knowledge and skills in basic circuit design and examine the impact of electricity on the world around them. Using MakerSpace materials, students design and construct circuits that light up, make noise, and spin. Students also learn to solder and build their own nightlight. Finally, they’ll take their electronics skills into the digital world to design, program and build a FitBit-like wearable device using a MicroBit microcontroller.

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Course Title: Debate


Term: Quarter


Prerequisites: None

Eligibility: 6th grade non-band students


Course Description: This course provide an introduction to the world of debate and mock trial. Students will take on various legal roles (lawyers, judges, witnesses) and will prepare multimedia and oral presentations. Guest speakers, such as trial attorneys and judges, will be invited to share their expertise and perspectives with the class. Participants will also gain an appreciation of the meaning of citizenship and constitutional protections.

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Course Title: Taste of Spanish 6

Term: Quarter

Prerequisites: None

Eligibility: 6th grade non-band students

Course Description: In Taste of Spanish, students will learn about the geography and cultures of Latin American countries which share the Spanish language in common as well as communicate that information to their peers via class presentations. Students will gather information, summarize research in their own words, and compare other cultures to their own. Students will also learn basic Spanish content (numbers, days of the week, food items, etc). This course is not a prerequisite for Spanish 1; however, it is a great precursor to Spanish and greater global and cultural awareness.

6th Grade Non-Band/Wheel Options

Course Title: Writing Intervention

Term: Quarter

Prerequisites: None - Students are assigned by UMS Staff

Eligibility: 6th grade non-band students

Course Description: Writing Intervention will be a combination of a variety of necessary reading and writing skills our students need for success in middle and high school. Taking elements from past elective classes, such as Study Skills, Writer’s Workshop, and Keyboarding, students will be assisted in making a smooth academic transition to their middle school classrooms. Students will be shown multiple ways to keep track of important papers, due dates, and backpack organization by using the UMS planner and Google Classroom to keep track of assignments. Various other skills include how to self-advocate with your teachers, improve homework turn-in routines, and how to best study for quizzes and tests at the middle school level. Presentation skills are also emphasized with small group activities.

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Course Title: Study Skills (Part 1)

Term: 1st Semester Only

Prerequisites: None - Students are assigned by UMS Staff

Eligibility: Hand chosen by UMS admin

Course Description: For those students enrolled in our intensive ELA and Math programs in 6th grade, we offer Science and Social Studies (under the guise of "study skills") for 1st semester. Taught by a 6th grade ELA/SS core teacher, enrolled students will receive a quarter of 6th grade science and a quarter of 6th grade social studies. There is no homework for this class and students are expected to stay current with the hands-on instruction by active class participation. The class size is kept intentionally small to better support the enrolled students.

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Course Title: Study Skills (Part 2)

Term: 2nd Semester Only

Prerequisites: None - Students are assigned by UMS Staff

Eligibility: Hand selected by UMS counselors and admin prior to the start of 2nd semester

Course Description: Study Skills (Part 2) is for those students who need (1) specific support with organization, (2) additional time during the school day to complete homework assignments, (3) additional support with their typing skills. In this Study Skills class, students will have the opportunity to progress through a typing program, complete already assigned homework assignments and projects, and receive all-class instruction from a 6th grade ELA/SS teacher on how to become a better organized student at Union Middle. There are limited spots available for this class. Students will be hand selected for the class by UMS counselors and admin prior to the start of 2nd semester.

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Course Title: Math Workshop

Term: TBD (Quarter/Semester)

Prerequisites: None

Eligibility: 6th grade non-band students

(Please note that Math Workshop is NOT a prerequisite for UMS’ Advanced Math Program.)

Course Description: Math Workshop is an opportunity for math-inquisitive students to accelerate their knowledge of the Math 6+ curriculum. Students will use their math solving skills to present a solution to challenging concepts throughout the course. They will delve into provided Problems of the Week, work with their classroom peers in challenging mathematical contests, and explore various other problem-solving opportunities. Students who love math will love the UMS Math Workshop!

2022-2023 Electives Course Catalog Seventh/Eighth Grade

Every year, our semester electives are paired with each other, meaning that all students who have "Elective X" fourth period 1st semester move to "Elective Y" fourth period 2nd semester. However, semester pairings will not be known until late summer. Students are encouraged to rank their top six elective choices via the Google Form. In the past, almost every student receives one of their top 5 requested electives for the school year.

Fine Arts

Course Title: Ceramics & Sculpture I

Term: Semester

Eligibility: 7th and 8th grade

Prerequisites: None

Slides & Presentations: Ceramics Overview

Course Description: In this semester-long course, students will learn to generate and conceptualize artistic ideas using the medium of clay and work with the understanding that creativity and innovative thinking are life skills that can be developed. Emphasis is on creativity in developing projects which demonstrate skills, creative thinking, and personal expression while focusing on 3D form.

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Course Title: Ceramics & Sculpture II

Term: Not offered in 2022-23

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: None

Course Description: This year-long course is designed for students who want to explore form and design through the medium of clay. This class is great for students who like working with their hands, who are creative, and who are innovative! Open to first-time students as well as advanced artists, students will learn hand-building techniques such as wedging, rolling slabs, coils, and simple sculpture while also consider the basic principles and elements of art. Students will also focus on more technically advanced projects with consideration to 3D form through clay and other medias.

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Course Title: Digital Design

Term: Year Long

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: None

Slides & Presentations: Intro to Digital Drawing & Design

Course Description: This year-long course is an introduction to digital design and drawing. The course will include the study of art theory, the principles & elements of art, design, typography, composition, and color theory. Students will improve design and illustration skills through digital drawing tips and tricks to bring life to their work. This studio-driven, project-based class encourages experimentation with traditional art forms and technology, emphasizing how digital art and design impacts our lives today.

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Course Title: Art II

Term: Year Long

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: Students should have a love of art and a willingness to be challenged by new media and techniques.

Slides & Presentations: Art II Powerpoint

Course Description: In this year-long course, students will learn to generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work with the understanding that creativity and innovative thinking are life skills that can be developed. The first semester will focus on the exploration of principles and elements of art using a wide range of media. The second semester of the course will incorporate "Guided Studio Time" with an emphasis on painting, ending with a final student-selected project. Students will focus on communicating ideas and creating personal meaning through media of their choice.

Music and Performing Arts

Course Title: Drama (Brown Bag Theatre)

Term: Semester

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: None

Slides & Presentations: Drama Video

Drama is offered as a 7th and 8th grade elective class and is an introduction to theater. In this semester-long class, students are introduced to concepts of theatrical performance including basic acting technique, blocking and staging, and dramatic performance in both film and musical theater. Students will train in physical theatre techniques, learn scene study skills, and explore improvisational movement as well as other topics related to the world of Theatre. There will be fun and creative daily warm-up activities that will be sure to inspire and get students excited about participating in class. The students will work on developing confidence in speaking to audiences and will learn how to both prepare for and present skits, scenes, monologue, and other performance genres including puppetry. Various types of theater may be used throughout the class to enable a better understanding of common media formats. Many students who sign up for our drama elective go on to participate in the school musical. Students of all abilities are welcome to join. This class is not a production based class that culminates in a final all school performance. Instead, it prepares and encourages students to participate in youth, community, and high school theater programs.

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Course Title: Symphonic Band

Term: Year Long

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: Successful completion of Intermediate or Concert Bands and passage of audition with the director.

Slides & Presentations: View UMS Bands in action UMS Music YouTube Channel

Course Description: Symphonic Band is a year-long course for seventh and eighth grade students that have already been in intermediate band or concert band AND they have displayed a high level of ability to play in Union’s highest-level ensemble through an audition with the director. During the fall, the band rehearses towards the winter concert and also marching in the holiday parades as a marching band. During the spring, this group performs on tour for the elementary students, a pops concert, a CMEA band festival, a spring concert, and in graduation. Symphonic Band meets during "zero" period, before the normal school day. Students in Symphonic Band should be able to read music.

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Course Title: Concert Band

Term: Year Long

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: Successful completion of at least 1 year of band or by audition.

Slides & Presentations: View UMS Bands in action UMS Music YouTube Channel

Course Description: This year-long course is designed for those who want to continue building their instrumental skills. Participants must complete Beginning Band or be accepted by an audition with the director. Intermediate Band, both an elective class and a performing group at UMS, is a commitment and participants must be willing to fulfill the requirements, which include regular practice and participation in most if not all performances. Concert and Intermediate band students perform as one in the winter, pops, spring, festival, and graduation performances. Sixth grade intermediate and seventh/eighth grade concert bands meet at different class times but perform together. Students in Concert Band should be able to read music.

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Course Title: Jazz Band

Term: Year Long

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: Students should have at least 1 full year experience on the instrument they intend to play.

Slides & Presentations: View UMS Bands in action UMS Music YouTube Channel

Course Description: Jazz Band has been an important ensemble in the Union Music Department for many years. Jazz band performs in the Union home concerts, on tour, at big events such as jazz festivals. The group performs a wide variety of music including: Swing Jazz, BeBop, Latin Jazz, Rock, Pop, R&B, and Soul. It is one of the most eclectic groups on campus, and a lot of fun! If you play a band instrument (especially, trumpet, saxophone or trombone), and want something different than concert band, this is the band for you!

Student Support

Course Title: THRIVE

Term: Year

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: Students will be hand-selected for Thrive 7 and Thrive 8 - students can request but cannot be selected for this course of their own accord.

Course Description: THRIVE is a semester-long course designed to improve students’ productivity, organization, character, and connection to the school. Topics for instruction include, but are not limited to: goal-setting, conflict resolution, time management, positive self-perceptions, and healthy responses to stress. Two days a week are dedicated to academic support allowing for quiet time with access to teachers and supplies. One day a week is devoted to sustained silent reading. The final day of the week changes, with team-building group activities, craft projects, guest speakers, etc. Students will keep a journal, set and track weekly goals, and communicate their progress to teachers and families.

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Course Title: Health and Fitness 7/8

Term: Semester

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: None

Slides & Presentations: Health & Fitness Pics

Course Description: Union Middle School's Health & Fitness Elective will enhance each student's individual fitness levels. This class will encourage each student's individual growth in (1) strength, (2) flexibility, (3) breath, and (4) balance while facilitating a mindfulness element. The curriculum will cultivate student fitness through various yoga styles with a focus on energetic power flow, power core techniques, and meditation/focus components. Curriculum involving proper exercise techniques, concepts involving injury prevention, and applications of exercise physiology and recovery will also be presented. Our goal is that every student will be empowered and inspired to create wellness tools to last a lifetime. Students will have FUN while getting Fit!

Fitness aspects of class are YOGA, team games, scooter boards, circuit training, fun obstacle courses, and relay races! We also apply Sport specific (your favorite sport) muscles for strength, flexibility, and stability. Students will not only have fun, but gain a basic knowledge of health, wellness, nutrition, mindfulness, as well as the muscles and bones of the human body. So pick Health and Fitness to play and get healthy in a Non-Competitive, Stress Free environment! *No dressing out required

Community Service

Course Title: Service Learning

Term: Semester

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: 2.0 GPA and never have taken Service Learning previously.

Course Description: Students interested in making their school a better place and learning principles of volunteerism are encouraged to consider “Service Learning.” Students may request one semester during their middle school experience to serve as an aide for a teacher in the classroom, in the library, or in the office. Students will complete various organizational and clerical activities for staff, assist students in the classroom, and/or setup labs, lessons, and learning experiences. Students enrolled in Service Learning will enjoy the opportunity to see a more “behind the scenes” perspective of how school works. Students enrolled in Service Learning are required to complete a 2-page written reflection regarding what they learned about their school, themselves and/or community service as a culminating exercise.

**Students cannot sign up via the electives form for Service Learning. There will be time to do so prior to the start of the school year via the elective change request form.

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Course Title: Leadership 8

Term: Year Long

Eligibility: 8th Grade ONLY

Prerequisites: Election as an ASB officer or appointment via application and interview. NOTE: Intro to Leadership is NOT a prerequisite.

Course Description: Leadership is the course available to student leaders elected or appointed to ASB to complete their service to Union Middle School. The mission of ASB is to promote and support leadership development and student activities. Students enrolled in this course will earn the principles of ‘service leadership’ and are expected to uphold the highest of behavioral and academic standards. This 8th grade class consists of 5 ASB Officers (elected in May) - President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer and Activities Commissioner - and 25 students involved in commissions: Dance, Activities, Student Store, Technology, and PR. Student leaders will develop as leaders and organize many of the school-wide activities and community service events. All members must have a 2.5 GPA (3.0 for Officers) and be a positive role model on campus.

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Course Title: Intro to Leadership

Term: Semester

Eligibility: 7th/8th Grade

Prerequisites: None

Slides & Presentations: Intro to Leadership

Course Description: In this elective, students have the opportunity to serve their school community, support student activities, and develop both personal and leadership skills. This course is a great introduction to the world of service and leadership in the broader community, along with being a great precursor (although NOT a prerequisite) to the year-long Leadership experience at the middle or high school levels. Students are also introduced to the process of designing meaningful solutions to problems at a local, national, and global level. Our Intro. to Leadership students are encouraged to think, create, and innovate with a focus on how to best empathize, define, ideate, prototype, test, and evaluate to improve not just their school, but also the world around them. Students will develop as leaders and organize school-wide activities and community service events. Each member should be a positive role model on campus.

Science and Technology

Course Title: Tiger Talk TV (also called Communication Arts: Video Production)

Term: Semester

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade (limited to 12 students per semester)

Prerequisites: None

Slides & Presentations: Tiger Talk Video!

Course Description: Become a YouTube Star! Students enrolled in Tiger Talk TV will be planning, streaming, editing, and presenting the Union Middle School Daily Announcements via our live streaming YouTube channel! We are looking for those students who want to help create a positive school climate with a focus on all of the amazing things that happen daily at Union Middle School. All students get practice in front of and behind the camera. Get ready to learn to use professional broadcasting equipment in the UMS Production Studio - use HD robotic cameras, teleprompters, soundboards, lighting equipment, green screens, and Wirecast, a professional use streaming software. There are seven primary roles in Communication Arts: on-screen talent, camera operator, director, audio board operator, teleprompter operator, and background graphics technicians. Everyone will be involved in the writing, editing, and producing of the daily announcements! During class time, students will be rehearsing for the next live broadcast and be immersed in many video production projects that will be shown on Tiger Talk. From daily asset videos, to song parodies, this class goes beyond just creating a daily broadcast. These are 21st-century skills in a real-life context. All students enrolled in this class are required to report to the Tiger Talk studio by 8:15 each day to produce the broadcast. Please do not select this elective if you cannot meet this commitment.

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Course Title: Marine Biology

Term: Semester

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: None

Slides & Presentations: Google Slides

Course Description: Our oceans play such an important part in our daily lives. Within this course, students will become familiar with the natural history of our local coastline, the Monterey Bay. Students will have the opportunity to learn how oceanographers and marine biologists sample different environments, study unique species, and track evolutionary changes. There will be a focus on preserving our biodiversity through environmental stewardship, environmental sustainability, and overall resource management. This elective is scheduled to include field trips to the Monterey Bay Aquarium during course enrollment. Students who are interested in AP Biology and future Marine Biology classes would greatly benefit from taking this introductory elective!

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Course Title: Project Lead the Way 7/8

Term: Semester

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: None

Slides & Presentations: PLTW Engineering Elective

Course Description: Throughout the year, students put the engineering design process to work in a series of challenges. We start building and testing right away with our skimmer challenge and then apply our new skills to the digital world of microcontrollers and the Internet of Things, the creative possibilities of 3D printing, and the competitive excitement of robotics.

Along the way, we’ll learn how engineering has shaped our world as we explore the history of aviation and flight. We also delve into the past, present, and future of space exploration as we build and launch rockets. Students learn a wide range of real-world engineering skills, from programming, to electronics breadboarding, to building automatic machines for our homes. We’ll make things that light up, spin, fly, play games, and solve real-world problems. All work is done in a makerspace/workshop environment. In short, we make cool things that do real-world stuff!

Possible coursework includes:

Design, Modeling, Robotics

Students explore the mechanics of robot design and construction, building robots that can perform a variety of tasks, including playing robot soccer and competing head-to-head in robot sumo. Students will use the VEX Robotics® platform to design, build, and program real-world objects such as traffic lights, toll booths, and robotic arms.

Microcontrollers

This unit will allow students to discover computer science concepts and skills by creating personally relevant, tangible, and shareable projects. Throughout the unit, students will learn about programming for the physical world by blending hardware design and software development. Using MicroBit microcontrollers, electronic parts, and MakerSpace materials, they will design and develop an automatic pet feeder, interactive art installation, or wearable. Students explore a variety of sensors to control their creations. More information available here!

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Course Title: Minecraft 7/8

Term: Semester

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: None

Slides & Presentations: Slides

Course Description: Get your "Mine" blown! In the Minecraft Elective, we use server-based Minecraft to collaborate in teams, problem solve, and create projects. Students will be challenged by building projects including pixel art, word art, a dream home, and an amusement park - all in the digital world. This is the place to learn the basics or hone your craft and work towards becoming a master. Along the way, we manage to find time to engage in free choice projects and friendly competition. Students will research, learn basic file sharing, and fine-tune computer navigation skills. Most importantly, students will collaborate and communicate with teammates while thinking critically and creatively about builds - all 4 Cs every day! Explore the Minecraft website and class agenda.

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Course Title: Computer Discoveries 8 (AKA Coding)

Term: Year

Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade

Prerequisites: None

Slides & Presentations: CS Discoveries Info Video

Course Description: CS Discoveries is an introductory computer science course that empowers students to create authentic artifacts and engage with computer science as a medium for creativity, communication, problem-solving, and fun. The course takes a wide lens on computer science by covering topics such as programming, physical computing, HTML/CSS, and data. Students engage with computer science as a medium for creativity, communication, problem-solving, and fun. The course inspires students as they build their own websites, apps, games, and physical computing devices. Students are introduced to tools and programming languages that are accessible for beginners while offering more advanced students opportunities to create sophisticated projects.

World Languages

Course Title: Introduction to Spanish


Term: Semester


Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade


Prerequisites: None


Slides & Presentations: Slides

Course Description: The curriculum for Introduction to Spanish focuses on the first semester of year-long Spanish 1. At the end of the semester, students will be able to greet one another, talk about the parts of the body, the days of the week, months of the year, describe themselves and others, be able to share what they like to do, and identify basic classroom materials. Students will learn Spanish in a natural way, enjoy speaking Spanish in realistic situations, appreciate diversity, encourage respect for self and others and be encouraged to take positive risks in a safe environment.

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Course Title: Spanish 1

Term: Year


Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade


Prerequisites: None


Slides & Presentations: Slides

Course Description: Spanish 1 is a year-long high school-level world language course. Students completing this course will be comfortable with verbal communication in a variety of everyday situations travelers to a Spanish speaking country may encounter. The units covered include: Names, Greetings, Numbers, Alphabet, Body, Time, Calendar, Seasons, Weather, School, Family, People, Food, Pastimes, and Directions as well as present tense verb conjugations and sentence structure. Students will learn Spanish in a natural way, enjoy speaking Spanish in realistic situations, appreciate diversity, encourage respect for self and others and be encouraged to take positive risks in a safe environment. At the end of the year, students are given a final exam. Students who score above 80% on the final may elect to take Spanish 2 as freshmen.

Note: We are offering year long Spanish 1 to 7th graders. However, we do NOT offer a Spanish 2 class in 8th grade. 7th grade students who select to take Spanish 1 may need to "re-test" prior to their freshman year for inclusion into Spanish 2 as a freshman. Please note that 8th graders have priority admittance into this year long elective.

High School Prep

Course Title: Journalism


Term: Semester


Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade


Prerequisites: None


Slides & Presentations: Video


Course Description: Are you interested in learning about the role of journalism and why news matters? Ready to discover the fundamental elements of newsgathering, writing, layout, and art skills needed to become a competent practicing journalist? In this class, you will learn the language of journalism and build a foundation of writing and creating for the news industry. Journalism will help you hone your writing skills while learning about different types of articles: news, feature, editorial, sports, and reviews. Journalism staff will also build a working knowledge of the art and design side as well as study the ethics of Journalism, all en route to creating our very own Union Middle School publication -- The Onion Gazette!

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Course Title: Debate and Mock Trial


Term: Semester


Eligibility: 7th and 8th Grade


Prerequisites: None


Slides & Presentations: Debate and Mock Trial


Course Description: This course will cover the workings of our legal system, our constitutional rights and responsibilities as U.S. citizens, public speaking, and debate skills. We will conduct several mock trials in class, with students taking on the roles of lawyers, judges, and witnesses. We will use multiple sources to conduct research and prepare multimedia and oral presentations. Guest speakers, such as trial attorneys and judges, will be invited to share their expertise and perspectives with the class. By the end of the semester, students will develop useful knowledge about the legal system, valuable questioning techniques, and critical thinking and oral advocacy skills. Participants will also gain an appreciation of the meaning of citizenship and constitutional protections.